Christian Dior | Biography, Haute Couture, Fashion House, & New Look (2024)

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Christian Dior (born January 21, 1905, Granville, France—died October 24, 1957, Montecatini, Italy) was a French fashion designer whose New Look style—characterized by ultrafeminine and highly sculptured clothing—dominated fashion in the decade following World War II. His eponymous fashion house is one of the most iconic in the world.

Early life and art career

Dior was one of five children born to Marie-Madeleine Dior (née Martin) and Alexandre Louis Maurice Dior, who owned a lucrative manufacturing business. The family later divided its time between Paris and a villa in Granville, France. His parents wanted him to become a diplomat, and Christian Dior studied political science at the University of Paris. However, his true passion was art, and, while in his early 20s, he began selling illustrations on the street.

Later, with financial help from his father, Dior opened a small art gallery. There he showed works by such artists as Salvador Dalí, Man Ray, and Jean Cocteau. However, in the midst of the Great Depression (1929–39), his father’s business folded, and the younger Dior was forced to close the gallery. He subsequently found work as a fashion illustrator, hired by various designers as well as the magazine Figaro Illustré.

In 1938 Dior became an assistant designer for the leading couturier of Paris, Robert Piguet. Dior later said, “At last, I would get to know the mysterious means by which an idea is transformed into a dress.” During World War II (1939–45) he served in the army until France fell to Germany in 1940. The following year he joined the house of designer Lucien Lelong.

House of Dior

“In an epoch as somber as ours, luxury must be defended inch by inch.”

Backed by French entrepreneur Marcel Boussac, Dior founded his own fashion house in 1946. The following year he introduced the revolutionary New Look, spurring international controversy over its radically lowered hemline. The look featured small shoulders, a cinched waist, and a voluminous skirt—a drastic change from the World War II trend of padded shoulders and short skirts. One of the most defining pieces was the Bar Jacket: a fitted collared jacket that slightly flared below the waist. It was often paired with a full skirt. The name of Dior’s style was based on a quote by Harper’s Bazaar’s editor in chief Carmel Snow, who said that Dior had created a “New Look.”

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The overnight sensation of the New Look was followed by 10 years of outstanding success. In the 1950s Dior introduced a variety of new silhouettes, including the H-line, the A-line, and the Y-line. Dior was instrumental in commercializing Parisian fashion on a worldwide basis and in regaining for Parisian couturiers the ground that had temporarily been lost to American designers. His devoted following included socialites, celebrities, and royalty. However, not everyone was fond of his work. Legendary French designer Coco Chanel, who was known for simple clothing, claimed that Dior “doesn’t dress women, he upholsters them.”

Awash in creativity

When designing new collections, Dior often spent long stretches of time soaking in his green-marble bathtub and sketching ideas.

Dior also branched out into other areas. Notably, in 1947 he released his first perfume, Miss Dior, which was inspired by his youngest sister, Catherine Dior. A member of the French Resistance during World War II, she was captured, tortured, and then imprisoned in Ravensbrück concentration camp in Germany. She was ultimately liberated by Soviet troops in 1945. In addition to perfume, Christian Dior also added shoes, makeup, and accessories to his label.

Death and legacy

In 1956 Dior published the autobiography Christian Dior et moi (Dior by Dior). The following year he suffered a fatal heart attack while vacationing in Italy. His assistant, Yves Saint Laurent, took over the couture house. Saint Laurent held this position until 1960, when he was drafted into the French army. Subsequent creative directors at the House of Dior have included Marc Bohan, Gianfranco Ferré, and John Galliano. Christian Dior was the subject of the TV series The New Look (2024– ).

The Editors of Encyclopaedia BritannicaThis article was most recently revised and updated by Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Christian Dior | Biography, Haute Couture, Fashion House, & New Look (2024)

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